AN INTRODUCTION TO AGRONOMY
- The word agronomy has been derived from the two Greek words, agros and nomos having the meaning of field and to manage, respectively.
- Literally, agronomy means the “art of managing field”. Technically, it means the “science and economics of crop production by management of farmland”.
- Agronomy is the art and underlying science in the production and improvement of field
crops with the efficient use of soil fertility, water, laborer, and other factors related to crop production.
- Agronomy is the field of study and practice of ways and means of production of food, feed, and fiber crops.
- Agronomy is defined as “a branch of agricultural science which deals with principles and practices of field crop production and management of the soil for higher productivity.
- Among all the branches of agriculture, agronomy occupies a pivotal position and is
regarded as the mother branch or primary branch. Like agriculture, agronomy is an integrated and applied aspect of different disciplines of pure sciences.
- Agronomy has three clear branches namely,
(i) Crop Science, (ii) Soil Science, and (iii) Environmental Science that deals only with applied aspects. (i.e.,) Soil-Crop-Environmental relationship.
- Agronomy is a synthesis of several disciplines like crop science, which includes plant breeding, crop physiology and biochemistry etc., and soil science, which includes soil fertilizers, manures, etc., and environmental science which includes meteorology and crop ecology.
• Planning, programming and executing measures for maximum utilization of land, labourer,
capital and other factors of production.• Choice of crop varieties adaptable to the particular agro-climate, land situation, soil fertility, season and method of cultivation and befitting to the cropping system.
• Proper field management by tillage, preparing field channels and bunds for irrigation and
drainage, checking soil erosion, leveling and adopting other suitable land improvement practices;
• Adoption of multiple cropping and also mixed or intercropping to ensure harvest even under
adverse environmental conditions.
• Timely application of proper and balanced nutrients to the crop and improvement of soil fertility
and productivity. Correction of ill-effects of soil reactions and conditions and increasing soil organic matter through the application of green manure, farm yard manure, organic wastes, bio
fertilizers and profitable recycling of organic wastes.
• Choice of quality seed or seed material and maintenance of requisite plant density per unit area
with healthy and uniform seedlings.
• Adoption of suitable method and time of harvesting of crop to reduce field loss and to release
land for succeeding crop(s) and efficient utilization of residual moisture, plant nutrients and
other management practices.
• Adoption of suitable post-harvest technologies.